TPU

Total Propagated Uncertainty

Within CARIS HIPS and SIPS, it is now possible to utilize the computed Total Propagated Uncertainty for many different sonars within the incorporated CUBE functionality.

The computation of TPU is based on the user's setup of the HIPS Vessel File with estimates of the accuracy of each individual sensor. In the TPU section of the HVF, each sensor accuracy value must be entered as 1-sigma. With the use of the TPU values in the Vessel File the user is now able to compute TPU so as to create a CUBE surface to aid in the processing of hydrographic data based on statisitical comparisons.

The sensor accuracy values provided in these pages were taken or derived from published manufacturer specifications between March 2004 and July 2004. The manufacturer reserves the right to change equipment specifications without notice.

The use of these published accuracy values should be re-evaluated periodically, as the user gains experience with the sensors and the TPU calculations.

Click here for computation and common values of 1-sigma.

 

Navigation

 
  Manufacturer   Model   Manufacturer Accuracy   HIPS Value   Setting/Comments  
 
 
 
  Applanix   POS MV 220   0.02m - 0.10m RMS   0.1   RTK  
          0.5m - 4.0m RMS   4.0   DGPS  
 
     
      POS MV 320   0.02m - 0.10m RMS   0.1   RTK  
          0.5m - 2.0m RMS   2.0   DGPS  
     
 
 
  C & C Technologies   C-NAV 2000 RM   0.10m RMS   0.10   Real-time StarFire DGPS  
     
      C-NAV 2050   < 0.10m RMS   0.10   Real-time StarFire DGPS  
          Centimeter Level   0.01   RTK  
     
 
 
  CODA Octopus   F180 Attitude and Position System   0.2m CEP   0.17   RTK (L1/L2 upgrade yields 0.02m CEP)  
          0.5m - 4.0m CEP   3.40   DGPS  
     
 
 
  CSI Wireless   Mini Max   < 1m 95% confidence   0.51   DGPS  
          < 5m 95% confidence   2.55      
 
     
      PowerMax   < 1m 95% confidence   0.51   DGPS  
          < 5m 95% confidence   2.55      
     
 
      DGPS Max   1m 95% confidence   0.51   DGPS  
          5m 95% confidence   2.55      
 
     
      GBX-12   2 to 3m (2DRMS)   1.06      
     
      GBX Pro   1m (2DRMS)   0.35      
     
 
 
  Ixsea   PHINS   5m to 15m CEP   12.74   With standalone GPS aiding  
          2m to 5 cm CEP   0.04   With RTK differential GPS aiding  
          0.5m to 3m CEP   2.55   With differential GPS aiding  
 
 
 
  Kongsberg Seatex   Seapath 20   1.5m RMS or 3.3m (95% CEP)   1.5   DGPS  
 
     
      Seapath 100   2.2m RMS or 5m (95% CEP)   2.20   DGPS  
     
 
      Seapath 200   0.7m RMS or 1.5m (95% CEP)   0.7   DGPS  
          0.01m + 1.6ppm RMS   0.01+ 1.6ppm   RTK  
 
     
      DPS 100   1m (95% CEP)   0.41   DGPS  
     
 
      DPS 102   1m (95% CEP)   0.41   DGPS  
 
     
      DPS 200   1m (95% CEP)   0.41   DGPS  
     
 
      DPS 116   < 2m (95% CEP)   0.9   with SBAS Service  
          1m (95% CEP)   0.64   Multiref  
     
 
 
  Thales navigation   3011 GPS Compass   0.5 to 1m RMS   1.0   DGPS HF Mode  
 
     
      Aquarius   < 0.01m   0.01   Real-time Accuracy  
     
     
      Aquarius²   < 0.01m   0.01   Real-time Accuracy  
     
     
      Sagitta   < 0.01m   0.01   Real-time Accuracy  
     
     
      DG14   3m CEP 5m 95%   2.55   Autonomous  
          0.4m CEP 0.9m 95%   0.46   Differential (Local Base Station)  
          0.7 CEP 1.6m 95%   0.82   Differential (Beacon)  
          1.0 CEP 3.0m 95%   1.53   Differential (SBAS)  
     
     
      DG16   3m CEP 5m 95%   2.55   Autonomous  
          0.4m CEP 0.9m 95%   0.46   Differential (Local Base Station)  
          0.7m CEP 1.6m 95%   0.82   Differential (Beacon)  
          1.0m CEP 3.0m 95%   1.53   Differential (SBAS)  
     
 
 
  Trimble   AgGPS 132   sub-meter differential   1   static (year-to-year)  
          0.10 to 0.30m RMS   0.3   dynamic (pass-to-pass)  
 
     
      MS860   0.01m + 2ppm   0.01 + 2ppm   Synchronized RTK  
          0.02m + 2ppm   0.02 + 2ppm   Low Latency RTK  
          < 1 m   1.0   DGPS  
     
     
      DSM 132   < 1m RMS   1.0   DGPS  
 
     
      DSM 12/212   < 1m RMS   1.0   DGPS  
     
 
 
  NavCom Technology, Inc.   NCT-2000D   ± 0.5m RMS   0.5   Enhanced SBAS (WAAS/EGNOS)  
          ± 0.01m + 1ppm RMS   0.01 + 1ppm   RTK Positioning < 10kms  
          ± 0.12 m + 2ppm RMS   0.12 + 2ppm   Code Differential GPS Positioning < 200kms  
     
     
      NCT-2030M   ± 0.5m RMS   0.5   Enhanced SBAS (WAAS/EGNOS)  
          ± 0.01 m + 1ppm RMS   0.01 + 1ppm   RTK Positioning < 10kms  
          ± 0.12 m + 2ppm RMS   0.12 + 2ppm   Code Differential GPS Positioning < 200kms  
     
     
      SF-2040G   < 0.10 m RMS   0.1   Real-time StarFire Accuracy  
          0.5m RMS   0.5   Enhanced SBAS (WAAS/EGNOS)  
          0.12 m + 2ppm RMS   0.12 + 2ppm   Code Differential GPS Positioning < 200kms  
     
     
      SF-2050   < 0.10 m RMS   0.1   Real-time StarFire Accuracy  
          0.5m RMS   0.5   Enhanced SBAS (WAAS/EGNOS)  
          0.12 m + 2ppm RMS   0.12 + 2ppm   Code Differential GPS Positioning < 200kms  
     
     
      RT-3010S   0.5m RMS   0.5   Enhanced SBAS (WAAS/EGNOS)  
          0.01 m + 1ppm RMS   0.01 m + 1ppm   RTK Positioning < 10kms  
          0.12 m + 2ppm RMS   0.12 + 2ppm   Code Differential GPS Positioning < 200kms  
     
     
      RT-3020   0.5m RMS   0.5   Enhanced SBAS (WAAS/EGNOS)  
          0.01 m + 1ppm RMS   0.01 m + 1ppm   RTK Positioning < 10kms  
          0.12 m + 2ppm RMS   0.12 + 2ppm   Code Differential GPS Positioning < 200kms  
     

 

Gyro/Heading

 
  Manufacturer   Model   Manufacturer Accuracy   HIPS Value   Setting/Comments  
 
 
 
  Applanix   POS MV 220   0.05°   0.05   4m baseline (RTK/DGPS)  
          0.1°   0.1   2m baseline (RTK/DGPS)  
 
     
      POS MV 320   0.01°   0.01   4m baseline (RTK/DGPS)  
          0.02°   0.02   2m baseline (RTK/DGPS)  
     
 
 
  CDLtd   MicroGyro-S   ±0.07° RMS Secant Latitude   0.7 x Sec(Latitude)   Dynamic (at Sea)  
     
      MiniPOS-S   0.169° Secant Latitude   0.169 x Sec(Latitude)      
     
 
      MiniPOS   0.169° Secant Latitude   0.169 x Sec(Latitude)      
 
 
 
  CODA Octopus   F180 Attitude and Position System   0.025°   0.025   4m Baseline (RTK/DGPS)  
          0.05°   0.05   2m Baseline (RTK/DGPS)  
          0.1°   0.1   1m Baseline (RTK/DGPS)  
     
 
 
  Ixsea   Octans III   ±0.1°RMS Secant Latitude   0.1 x Sec(Latitude)   Gyrocompass  
 
     
      PHINS   0.01° RMS Secant Latitude   0.01 x Sec(Latitude)   with GPS aiding  
          0.02° RMS Secant Latitude   0.02 x Sec(Latitude)   with DVL aiding only  
          0.05° RMS Secant Latitude   0.05 x Sec(Latitude)   with no aiding  
     
 
 
  Kongsberg Seatex   Seapath 20   0.2° RMS   0.2   Static  
          0.3° RMS   0.3   Dynamic  
 
     
      Seapath 100   0.2° RMS   0.2   1m baseline  
     
 
      Seapath 200   0.05° RMS   0.05   2.5m baseline  
          0.05° RMS   0.05   RTK  
 
     
      MRU 4   0.05° RMS   0.05   Static (no magnetic vehicle influence, < 60° latitude  
     
 
      MRU 40   1.2° RMS   1.2   Dynamic (at optimal magnetic conditions,< 60° latitude  
 
     
      MRU 6   0.3° RMS   0.3   Static (no magnetic vehicle influence, < 60° latitude  
     
 
      MRU 6   1.0° RMS   1.0   Dynamic (at optimal magnetic conditions,< 60° latitude  
     
 
 
  Thales navigation   3011 GPS Compass   0.5° RMS   0.5      
 
     
      Aquarius²   0.2°xD RMS   0.2xD   D = Baseline Length in meters  
     
     
      Sagitta   0.2°xD RMS   0.2xD   D = Baseline Length in meters  
     
 
 
  Trimble   MS860   <0.03°   0.03   10m Baseline  
          <0.08°   0.08   5m Baseline  
     
 
 
  VT TSS   MAHRS Surface   ±0.1° RMS Secant Latitude   0.1 x Sec(Latitude)   Dynamic  
 
     
      Meridian Standard   ±0.6° RMS Secant Latitude   0.6 x Sec(Latitude)   Dynamic  
     
     
      Meridian Surveyor   ±0.2° RMS Secant Latitude   0.2 x Sec(Latitude)   Dynamic  
     

 

Heave

 
  Manufacturer   Model   Manufacturer Accuracy  
Heave
 
Heave % Amplitude
  Setting/Comments  
 
 
 
  Applanix   POS MV 220   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher (RTK/DGPS)  
 
     
      POS MV 320   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher (RTK/DGPS)  
     
 
 
  OCDA Octopus   F180 Attitude and Position System   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher (RTK/DGPS)  
 
 
 
  Ixsea   Octans III   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
 
     
      PHINS   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
     
 
 
  Kongsberg Seatex   Seapath 100   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
 
     
      Seapath 200   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
     
 
      Seapath 200 RTK   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
 
     
      MRU 4   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
     
 
      MRU 5   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
 
     
      MRU 6   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
     
 
      MRU H   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
 
 
 
  VT TSS   DMS-05   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
 
     
      DMS 10   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
     
 
     
      DMS 25   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
 
     
      HS 50   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
     
 
      MAHRS Surface   5cm or 5% of amplitude  
0.05
 
5
  whichever is higher  
 

 

Roll & Pitch

 
  Manufacturer   Model   Manufacturer Accuracy   HIPS Value   Setting/Comments  
 
 
 
  Applanix   POS MV 220   < 0.05° RMS   0.05   RTK  
          0.05° RMS   0.05   DGPS  
 
     
      POS MV 320   < 0.01° RMS   0.01   RTK  
          0.02° RMS   0.02   DGPS  
     
 
 
  CDLtd   MicroGyro-S   0.05°   0.05      
 
     
      MicroGyro   0.05°   0.05      
     
 
      MiniPOS-S   0.028° RMS   0.028      
 
     
      MiniPOS   0.028° RMS   0.028      
     
 
      MiniTilt   0.05°   0.05      
 
     
      MicroTilt   0.5° RMS   0.5   to ±30° at maximum update rate
(approx 40 updates / second)
 
          0.2° RMS   0.2   to ±30° at maximum update rate
(approx 2 updates / second)
 
     
 
 
  CODA Octopus   F180 Attitude and Position System   < 0.025°   0.025   RTK/DGPS  
 
 
 
  Ixsea   Octans III   ±0.01° RMS   0.01   for ± 90° ampllitude  
 
     
      PHINS   0.01° RMS   0.01      
     
 
 
  Kongsberg Seatex   Seapath 100   0.1° RMS   0.1   for ± 5° ampllitude  
 
     
      Seapath 200   0.02° RMS   0.02   for ± 5° ampllitude  
     
 
      MRU 2   0.1° RMS   0.1   Static  
          0.15° RMS   0.15   Dynamic (for ±5° amplitude)  
 
     
      MRU 4   0.05° RMS   0.05   Static  
          0.1° RMS   0.1   Dynamic (for ±5° amplitude)  
     
 
      MRU 5   0.02° RMS   0.02   for ± 5° ampllitude  
 
     
      MRU 6   0.02° RMS   0.02   for ± 5° ampllitude  
     
 
      MRU H   0.05° RMS   0.05   Static  
          0.1° RMS   0.1   Dynamic (for ±5° amplitude)  
     
 
 
  VT TSS   DMS-05   0.04° RMS   0.04   at ± 30° amplitude  
 
     
      DMS 10   0.07° RMS   0.07   at ± 30° amplitude  
     
 
      DMS 25   0.2° RMS   0.2   at ± 30° amplitude  
 
     
      DMS RP25   0.25° RMS   0.25   at ± 30° amplitude  
     
 
      MAHRS Surface   0.01° RMS   0.01   at ± 90° amplitude  
 

 

Sonar

 
  Entry in Device Models   Description   Units  
 
 
Sonar Specifics
 
  Max_Num_Beams value   Maximum number of beams on the device   #  
  Operating_Frequency_1 value   Operating frequency 1 (or prime freq.), kHz   kHz  
  Operating_Frequency_2 value   Operating frequency 2 (or zero if 1 frequency), kHz   kHz  
  Max_Angle value   Maximum angle away from nadir, deg   Deg  
  Beam_Width_Across value   Across track beam width   Deg  
  Beam_Width_Along value   Along track beam width   Deg  
  Steering_Angle value   Angle beyond which beams are steered   Deg  
  Range_Sampling_Frequency value   Range sampling frequency   Hz  
  Range_Sampling_Distance value   Range sampling distance   m  
  Min_Pulse_Length value   Minimum pulse length   ms  
 
 
Rates
 
  Repitition value   Maximum repitition rate   pings per sec  
  Bathy value   Rate of bathymetry packets   packets per sec  
  Attitude value   Rate of attitude packets   packets per sec  
  Imagery value   Rate of imagery packets   packets per sec  
 
 
Density
 
  Bathy value   Number of packets of bathy information   packets in datagram  
  Attitude value   Number of packets of attitude information   packets in datagram  
  Imagery value   Number of packets of imagery   packets in datagram  
 
 
Device Properties
 
  Imagery value   Device is a multi-beam (No = single-beam)   Yes / No  
  SideScan value   Device is a true side-scan sonar   Yes / No  
  Towed value   Device is towed/tethered or is being towed   Yes / No  
  Calibrated value   Device backscatter is calibrated in dB   Yes / No  
  DualFrequency value   Device uses two operating frequencies   Yes / No  
  HasAccuracy value   Accuracy information available through device module calls   Yes / No  
  Steered value   Device has steered beams   Yes / No  
  Splithead value   Device has a dual transducer configuration   Yes / No  
  Bathymetric value   Device can generate bathymetry information   Yes / No  
  Imagery value   Device can generate imagery (backscatter)   Yes / No  
  Attitude value   Device can generate attitude datastream   Yes / No  
 
 

 


Computation and common values of 1-sigma

The uncertainty values used within the HIPS Vessel File need to be entered as 1-sigma. This being the uncertainty of a sensor.

Throughout the TPU Resource page there is reference made of uncertainty in several different forms such as 95%, CEP, RMS, etc. It must be remembered that HIPS and SIPS requires the 1-sigma value to be entered in the Vessel File for a more rigorous computation of the TPU. Below are some of the relationships between the 1-sigma value and some of the common values found in manufacturer's specifications.

Determination of the Standard Deviation Values of the TPE Sensor in the HVF

*Note: Values entered into the Standard Deviation section of the TPE sensor of the HVF are to be standard deviation values or uncertainty values at 1 sigma (approximately 68%)

Standard Deviation/Uncertainty is denoted by: σ

Other values which the user may discover when trying to determine the standard deviation:

RMS: Root Mean Square

This value is an estimation of the standard deviation or uncertainty. For all intents and purposes this value can be used as the standard deviation

CEP: Circular Error Probable

This is the radius of a circle that contains 50% of the observations

CEP = 0.5887(σx1 + σx2)

Assuming that σx1 = σx2, then:

CEP = 0.5887(2σ)

95% CEP = 2.08 × CEP
99% CEP = 2.58 × CEP

DRMS: Distance Root Mean Square or Mean Square Positional Error (MSPE)

This measure contains 64% – 77% probability.

DRMS = √σ2x1 + σ2x2

Assuming that σx1 = σx2, then:

DRMS = √2 × σ

2DRMS: Twice the DRMS

This measure contains 95% — 98% probability.

2DRMS = 2 × DRMS

 

Questions? Quotes? Contact sales.