1. breakwater: a structure protecting a shore area, harbour, anchorage, or basin from waves. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 542)
  2. groyne (groin): a low artificial wall-like structure of durable material extending from the land to seaward for a particular purpose, such as to prevent coast erosion (adapted from IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2525 and IHO Chart Specifications, M-4)
  3. mole: a form of breakwater alongside which vessels may lie on the sheltered side only; in some cases it may lie entirely within an artificial harbour, permitting vessels to lie along both sides. (IHO Chart Specifications, M-4)
  4. pier (jetty): a long, narrow structure extending into the water to afford a berthing place for vessels, to serve as a promenade, etc. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 3833)
  5. promenade pier: a pier built only for recreational purposes. (IHO Chart Specifications, M-4)
  6. wharf (quay): a structure serving as a berthing place for vessels. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 5985)
  7. training wall: a wall or bank, often submerged, built to direct or confine the flow of a river or tidal current, or to promote a scour action. (Adapted from IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 5586 and IHO Chart Specifications, M-4).
  8. rip rap: A layer of broken rock, cobbles, boulders, or fragments of sufficient size to resist the erosive forces of flowing water and wave action. (Adapted from Marine Chart Manual, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - NOAA, 1992)
  9. revetment: facing of stone or other material, either permanent or temporary, placed along the edge of a stream, river or canal to stabilize the bank and to protect it from the erosive action of the stream. (Adapted from IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 4379)
  10. sea wall: an embankment or wall for protection against waves or tidal action along a shore or water front. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 4584)
  11. landing steps: steps at the shoreline as the connection between land and water on different levels.
  12. ramp: a sloping structure that can either be used, as a landing place, at variable water levels, for small vessels, landing ships, or a ferry boat, or for hauling a cradle carrying a vessel, which may include rails. (Adapted from IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 4209)
  13. slipway: the prepared and usually reinforced inclined surface on which keel- and bilge-blocks are laid for supporting a vessel under construction. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 4775)
  14. fender: a protective structure designed to cushion the impact of a vessel and prevent damage.
  15. solid face wharf: a wharf consisting of a solid wall of concrete, masonry, wood etc., such that the water cannot circulate freely under the wharf. The type of construction affects ship-handling; for example, a solid face wharf may give shelter from tidal streams, but under certain circumstances a cusion of water may build up between such a wharf and a ship attempting to berth at it, causing difficulties in ship handling. (Capt. A. Rae, pilot, Port of Halifax & Mr. R. Morash, wharf building engineer, Transport Canada)
  16. open face wharf: a wharf supported on piles or other structures which allow free circulation of water under the wharf. (Capt. A. Rae, pilot, Port of Halifax & Mr. R. Morash, wharf building engineer, Transport Canada)
  17. log ramp: an inclined plane used to dump logs into the water for transport, or to haul logs out of the water for processing